Chen Hao. A History of the Second Türk Empire, ca. 682–745 AD (2021)

Chen Hao. A History of the Second Türk Empire, ca. 682–745 AD (2021)
Title:A History of the Second Türk Empire (ca. 682–745 AD)
Author:Chen Hao
Translator:
Editor:
Language:English
Series:Brill’s Inner Asian Library, vol. 40
Place:Leiden
Publisher:Brill
Year:2021
Pages:XVI, 321
ISBN:9789004464933, 9789004464322
File:PDF, 3.11 MB
Download:Click here

Chen Hao. A History of the Second Türk Empire (ca. 682–745 AD). Series: Brill’s Inner Asian Library, vol. 40. Leiden: Brill, 2021, XVI+321 p. ISBN 9789004464933, ISBN 9789004464322

Contents

Acknowledgments xi
Map of the Second Türk Empire xiii
The Ruling Lineage of the Second Türk Empire (682–745 AD) xiv
Abbreviations xv

Introduction 1

1 History of the Early Türks 1
2 Overview of Political and Social Conditions on the Steppe 3
3 Previous Research 5
4 Questions and Sources 8
5 Why a New Edition of the Old Turkic Inscriptions? 9
6 Notes on Calendar 11
7 Notes on Transcribing Chinese Characters 14

1 Revival of Power 16

1 Unsuccessful Rebellion 16
2 Successful Uprising Led by Kutluğ 19
3 The Base of the Türk Rebels: Çuğay Mountain and Black Sand 21
4 Ashide Yuanzhen and Bilge Toñukuk 25
5 Campaigns of the Türk Army 27
6 Return to Ötüken 30
7 The Türk Campaign against Shandong 34
8 The Tripartite Alliance against the Türks 37
9 The Türk Campaign against the Kırkız 38
10 Toñukuk’s Isolation in the Army 39
11 The Westward Campaign of the Türks 42
12 When Did Élteriş Kağan Pass Away? 45

2 Years of Warfare 47

1 Honeymoon between the Türks and China 47
2 The Kıtañ Rebellion against China 48
3 The Intervention of the Türks 50
4 The Türk Requirements for Military Aid 52
5 The Winner of the Kıtañ-China War: The Türks 54
6 Breakdown of the Türk-China Negotiations 55
7 The Türks’ Second Wave of Attacks on China 59
8 The Türks’ Victory over Çaça 63
9 The Construction of Three Strategic Citadels 64
10 The Involvement of the Türgiş and Kırkız 67
11 Resumption of the Türk-Tang Marriage Negotiations 71
12 The Türk Campaign against the Kırkız and Türgiş 74
13 Suspension of the Türk-Tang Marriage Negotiations 75
14 The Rise of the Tatabı 76
15 The Fruits of the Türk-Tang Marriage Negotiations 78
16 The Béş Balık Battle 80
17 Kapğan Kağan’s Last Attempt 82
18 Risk of Collapse 84
19 The Türk-Oğuz War 87

3 Compromise and Negotiation 91

1 Bilge Kağan’s Enthronement 91
2 Background of the Toñukuk Inscription 93
3 Swaying the Attitudes of the Small Regimes 97
4 The Türk Campaign against the Basmıl 100
5 Rebellion of the Sogdians in Altı Çub Soğdak 103
6 The Türks’ Foreign Policy 106
7 Establishment of the Kül Tégin Memorial 114
8 The Türk Campaign against the Tatabı 118
9 Bilge Kağan’s Death: A Murder Case 120

4 Empire in Decay 123

1 Teŋri Teg Teŋri Yaratmış Türk Bilge Kağan (r. 734–740) 123
1.1 Who Was the Successor of Bilge Kağan? 123
1.2 The Establishment of Bilge Kağan’s Memorial 125
1.3 Economic Disputes between the Türks and the Tang 126
1.4 The Campaigns of Teŋri Teg Teŋri Yaratmış Türk Bilge Kağan 130
2 Teŋri Teg Teŋride Bolmış Türk Bilge Kağan (r. 740–741) 133
2.1 Authorship of the South Side of the Kül Tégin Inscription 133
2.2 Challenges Faced by Teŋri Teg Teŋride Bolmış Türk Bilge Kağan 139
3 Collapse of the Second Türk Empire 140

Conclusion 143

1 Reconstruction of the Chronology 143
2 Contextualizing the Old Turkic Inscriptions 146
3 Authorship of the Old Turkic Inscriptions 148

Appendix: Old Turkic Inscriptions 151

Notes on Transliteration, Transcription and Translation 151
Alphabet 151
Transliteration 151
Transcription 152
The Question of é 152
Orthography 152
The Archphoneme Vowels 152
Miscellaneous 153
Bilge Toñukuk Inscription – Text 154
Stone I 154
West Side 154
South Side 157
East Side 161
North Side 163
Stone II 167
West Side 167
South Side 169
East Side 171
North Side 173
Bilge Toñukuk Inscription – Translation 174
Stone I 174
West Side 174
South Side 174
East Side 175
North Side 175
Stone II 176
West Side 176
South Side 177
East Side 177
North Side 178
Kül Tégin Inscription – Text 179
East Side 179
North Side 189
Northeast Edge 192
Southeast Edge 192
Southwest Edge 193
West Side 193
South Side 193
Kül Tégin Inscription – Translation 199
East Side 199
North Side 202
Northeast Edge 204
Southeast Edge 204
Southwest Edge 204
West Side 204
South Side 204
Bilge Kağan Inscription – Text 206
East Side 206
Southeast Edge 213
South Side 213
Southwest Edge 215
West Side 215
North Side 215
Bilge Kağan Inscription – Translation 218
East Side 218
Southeast Edge 223
South Side 223
Southwest Edge 223
West Side 224
North Side 224
The Chinese Text on Kül Tégin’s Memorial 226
The Text 227
A New Translation 229

Glossary of the Old Turkic Inscriptions 231
Glossary of the Chinese Characters 256
Chronology 263
Bibliography 290
Index 306

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